Geography & population

Djibouti is a country on the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the southeast.

  • To the east of Djibouti is its coastline on the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. It has a strategic location on the Horn of Africa and the Bab el Mandeb strait, along a route through the Red Sea and Suez Canal. Djibouti’s coastline serves as a commercial gateway between the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa.

  • Geography

    Djibouti shares 113 km of borders with Eritrea, 337 km with Ethiopia, and 58 km with Somalia (total 508 km). Rainfall is sparse, and most of the territory has a semi-arid or arid environment. Djibouti’s major settlements include the capital city of Djibouti, Djibouti City, the port towns of Tadjourah and Obock, and the southern cities of Ali Sabieh and Dikhil. It covers a total of 23,200 km2, of which 23,180 km2 is land and 20 km2 is water. Djibouti has eight mountain ranges with peaks of over 1,000 m.

    The Mousa Ali range is considered the country’s highest mountain range, with the tallest peak on the border with Ethiopia and Eritrea. It has an elevation of 2,028 m. The Grand Bara desert covers parts of southern Djibouti in the Arta, Ali Sabieh and Dikhil regions. The majority of it sits at a relatively low elevation, below 560 m.

  • Regions

    Djibouti is sectioned into six administrative zones. The regions and districts of Djibouti are administered directly from the capital city of Djibouti. A policy of decentralisation was initiated in 2002, with the establishment of regional councils. 

The six regions of
Djibouti

Region

Ali Sabieh
Arta
Dikhil
Djibouti City
Obock
Tadjourah

Area (km2)

2,200
1,800
7,200
200
4,700
7,100

Population

86,949
42,380
88,948
475,322
37,856
86,704
  • Population

    The population of Djibouti is 818,159 with more than two thirds of the population living in the capital city of Djibouti. The growth rate is 2.5% with approximately half the population below the age of 20.

    The literacy rate is 67.9% and life expectancy is on average 61.99 years.

    Population Urban Rural
    Percentage 83% 17%